Footnotes and References
My lifelong interest in the Battle of the Atlantic was piqued many years ago when I met one of the RAF seaplane pilots who flew out of Castle Archdale on Lough Erne during WW2 on missions protecting incoming convoys that took him over the North Mayo coast; its spectacular sea cliff scenery he fondly remembered decades later despite the dangers he faced. A perfect English gentleman, he was delighted to meet this Mayo man on a brief holiday in the English city of Bath. He told me how after the war he went back to university in Liverpool to qualify in Aeronautical Engineering, and later went to work in the United States for the famous magnate, Howard Hughes, in his aircraft company. Our conversation was all to brief, but sometimes on my walks around Erris Head or Benwee Head I have thought of this brave RAF pilot, one of so many British and Irish airmen who risked their lives so that we could all be free of the evils of totalitarianism.
My aim in writing this article is to to remember the bravery of not just those who were directly involved in the war at sea, but also Mayo’s coastal communities, coastwatchers and gardai who as innocent bystanders had to deal with the terrible aftermath of battle.
This article also acknowledges the authorative and groundbreaking work of others, most notably Michael Kennedy, Executive Editor, Documents on Irish Foreign Policy, Royal Irish Academy (RIA).
Michael Kennedy’s, Guarding Neutral Ireland: the Coast Watching Service and Military Intelligence, 1939-1945 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2008), is a monumental body of research, the book should be the starting off point for those interested in Ireland and the Battle of the Atlantic.
The book details the work of the Coastwatching Service during WW2 and the role of the Look Out Posts around our coast that played such an important role in protecting Irish neutrality by providing daily tactical and strategic information to Irish military intelligence about the movements of belligereent ships, warplanes, and U-boats off our coast. The book also brought to light how the authorities and local communities coped with scale of the human tragedy taking place in the Atlantic, evident in the bodies that were washed ashore along our western seaboard from 1940 to 1945.
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War Graves in Mayo
Where the Battle of Atlantic casualties are buried in Co. Mayo.
|ACHILL (HOLY TRINITY) COI CHURCHYARD||JOHN MURPHY (26), Boatswain, S.S. The Sultan (Glasgow), Died 02 February 1941. Grave 8.|
GEORGE IRONSIDE (44), Sapper Royal Engineers, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 3.
GEORGE JAMES WALTERS (47), Able Seaman M.V. Upwey Crange (London). Died 08 August 1940. Grave 4.
HARRY KIRKPATRICK, Seaman Royal Naval Reserve, H.M.S. Patroclus. Died 03 November 1940. Grave 1.
|BALLYCASTLE NEW CEMETERY||EDWARD GEORGE LANE, Private Devonshire Regiment, S.S. Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 1.||My research has found that there are at least 12 other unknown bodies buried here without a headstone.|
|BELMULLET *COI CHURCHYARD||WILLIAM FREDERICK GEORGE CHICK (19), Private Dorsetshire Regiment, S.S. Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 3.|
JAMES JAFFRAY (27), Sapper Royal Engineers, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 6.
WILLIAM EWEN MORRISON, Sapper Royal Engineers, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 5.
FRANK SIDNEY CARTER (27), Trooper Royal Armoured Corps, SS Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 2.
DONALD ERNEST VERE DOMICAN (21), Private Welch Regiment, SS Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 1.
WALLACE GOODWIN (22), Gunner 153rd (The Leicestershire Yeomanry) Field Regt., SS Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 4.
CLIFFORD MAJOR MACKROW (48), Chief Engineer Officer M.V. Upwey Grange. Died 08 August 1940. Grave 10.
JOHN HALLIWELL WARHAM (25), Private Pioneer Corps, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 9.
ARCHIBALD GRAHAM WEIR (55), Wing Commander RAF, S.S. Nerissa. Died 30 April 1941. Grave 13.
SYDNEY GEORGE BETTS (24), Driver Royal Engineers, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 8.
WILLIAM HULME (27), Private Pioneer Corps, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 7.
JACK SPRINGETT JOHNSON (37), Leading Seaman, H.M.S. Mashona. Died 28 May 1941. Grave 12.
THOMAS ELVIN MITCHELL (20), Lieutenant Carleton and York Regiment, R.C.I.C., S.S. Nerissa. Died 30 April 1941. Grave 11.
|CLARE ISLAND||JUBILEE JACK TWEED (44), Petty Officer H.M.S. Mashona. Died 28 May 1941.|
|CROSSPATRICK, KILLALA||Once described in a newspaper article as ‘the loneliest man in the world’, Claude Kirkwood was the last member of the Kirkwood family to live and own Bartra Island in Killala Bay where the River Moy meets the wild Atlantic.|
On January 17, 1941, Claude Kirkwood found a body washed up on the strand, another victim of the Battle of the Atlantic. The unidentified remains were interred in Crosspatrick cemetery, Killala. 59
|One unknown. No headstone.|
|DOOHOMA||EMYR PRYTHERCH (26), Private Pioneer Corps, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940.|
|DUGORT CHURCH OF IRELAND CHURCHYARD||JONAS ARTHUR HARDINGHAM (23) Private, Pioneer Corps, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 2.||Two unknowns buried with headstones.|
|DOONFEENEY||At least one uknown buried here.|
|FALLMORE||STANLEY ALFRED JOHN DARNELL (25), Private Royal Army Service Corps, S.S. Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 1.|
PETER CLIFFORD McGLADE (17), Boy 1st Class, H.M.S. Mashona. Died 28 May 1941. Grave 2.
|At least, 2 Unknows without headstones.|
|GEESALA||ROBERT MACKAY SUTHERLAND (27), Second Radio Officer, S.S. Serbino (Liverpool). Died 21 October 1941.||My research has discovered two other unmarked graves of unknowns here.|
|KILDAVNET, ACHILL||FREDERICK GEORGE WHEELER (34), Electrical Artificer 1st Class, H.M.S. Mashona. Died 28 May 1941. Grave 1.|
|KILGALLIGAN, CARROWTEIGE||At least 7 unknowns buried here without markers. Separately, 6 German sailors’ disinterred in 1960s and re-interred in German war memorial in Wicklow.|
|KILLEEN, LOUISBURGH||Body washed ashore at Thallabaun, Louisburgh on 10.12.1940 and found by Michael O’Malley. Remains buried in Killeen cemetery on 11.12.1940 by Home Assistance Officer, Redmond Lyons, Furmoyloe, Louisburgh. 59b||One unknown. No headstone.|
|NEWPORT *COI||Bodies of 2 adult males found on strand at Murrevagh, Mulranny, on 05.07.1941. First body found by Patrick Gorman, Murrevagh, and second body found by Garda M.J. Gaffney, Mulranny. Remains of both men buried in one grave in Newport Church of Ireland cemetery. 59c||Two unknowns buried in same grave with headstone.|
|POLRANNY, ACHILL||Body of adult male found 13.12.1941 at Carrickbaun Point, Doughbeg, Mulranny, by Michael Gallagher, Bollinglanna, Curraun, a member of LOP Curraun. Remains buried in Church of Ireland churchyard, Polranny, Achill Sound. 60||One unknown. No headstone.|
|PULLATHOMAS||Body of unknown adult male washed ashore at Inver, Barnatra, 08.08.1940. Buried in Pullathomas RC cemetery same day by Relieving Officer, Martin Gallagher. 61||One unknown. No headstone.|
|RATHFRAN||GEOFFREY CHARLES BUTCHER, Apprentice, M.V. Upwey Grange. Died 08 August 1940. Grave 2.|
ARNOLD WALMSLEY, Private Pioneer Corps, S.S. Mohamed Ali El-Kebir. Died 07 August 1940. Grave 1.
|One unknown with headstone.|
|TERMONCARRAGH||EDGAR HUGH MAYES (33), Third Officer M.V. Upwey Grange. Died 08 August 1940. Grave 10.|
PATRICK COLBERT (22), Able Seaman S.S. Macville (London). Died 20 August 1940. Grave 3.
JOHN CONNELLY (21), Trooper Lovat Scouts, SS Arandora Star. Died 02 July 1940. Grave 2.
FREDERICK RICHARD THOMAS (37), Second Officer, S.S. Dione II (Port Talbot). Died 04 February 1941. Grave 4.
|2 unknowns buried with headstones. |
Separately, 9 German sailors disinterred in 1960s and re-interred in German war memorial in Wicklow.
|UGOOL OLD CEMETERY||Body of unknown male found on Ugool beach on 19.09.1940. Buried in ancient burial ground at Ugool near where body was found. 62||One unknown. No headstone.|
|* Church of Ireland||For References see below.||Graves of Unknowns in some cemeteries have headstones giving date when body found. |
Many graves of unidentified bodies without marker and plot whereabouts forgotten.
Mayo Look Out Posts and Coastwatchers (1939-45)
|Look Out Post||Coastwatchers|
|KILCUMMIN HEAD EIRE 65||NCOs|
Joseph Collins, Frank Connor, Martin Langan, Anthony Lynn, Michael Lynn, George Munnelly, John Robinson.
|DOWNPATRICK HEAD EIRE 64||NCOs|
James Doherty, P. Doherty, P. Farrell, P. Langan, P. Monelly, M. Neaton, J. Ormsby, J. Tighe.
John P. Burns, Thomas Burns, T. Bournes, M.J. Connolly, Charles Doherty, Martin Doherty, J.E. Garvin, Redmond Garvin.
J. Barrett, Michael Carey, Peter Lavelle, John Lally, ? Lally, Anthony Moloney, P. McAndrew, M.P. Reilly.
|ANNAGH HEAD EIRE 61||NCOs|
T. Carey, M. Cawley, A. Gilboy, P. Kilker, J. Lavelle, M. Lavelle, S. MacAndrew, A.J. O’Malley, A. Reilly.
|BLACKSOD BAY EIRE 60||NCOs|
A. Cawley, J.J. Creane, P. Gaughan, T. Meeneghan, W. Meenaghan, P. Monaghan, M. Reilly.
|MOYTEOGUE HEAD EIRE 59||NCOs|
J. O’Malley, ? Reilly.
P. Cafferty, P. Callaghan, ? Callaghan, J. Farry, M. Gallagher, A. Lavelle, ? Moloney, T. O’Malley, T. English.
M.G (initials only, Gallagher?).
T. Campbell, M. Fallon, M. Gallagher, T. Gallagher, J. Madden, T. Madden, M. Moran.
D. Gibbons, M. Gill, A. McDonagh, M. McEvilly, D. O’Toole, P. O’Toole, R. O’Toole, T. Ryder, J. Sammon.
|Alongside the LOPs huge stone Éire signs were erected to warn bombers they were flying over a neutral country. You can still see the signs at Downpatrick Head, Benwee Head and Erris Head.||Look Out Posts (LOPs) of the Defence Forces’ (1939-1945) Marine and Coast Watching Service (M&CWS). The Coastwatchers were responsible for identifying and reporting on shipping and aircraft movements and on any communications between ship and shore.|
Coastwatchers were trained in signalling, first aid, identification of types of ship, submarines, aircraft as well as basic meterorolgy and hydrography.
The M&CWS was disbanded in October 1945.
1 Kennedy, Michael. Guarding Neutral Ireland: the Coast Watching Service and Military Intelligence, 1939-1945 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2008), p105.
02 Western People (hereafter WP). 17.08.1940, p5.
03 Irish maritime events during World War II, Wikipedia.
04 WP. 05.04.1940, p5.
05 O’Raghallaigh Tomás Bán. Amongst Our Own, The Inishkeas, p288; WP, 05.04.1940.
06 WP. 13.05.1940, p5.
07 WP. 27.04.1940, p5.
08 WP. 13.5.1940. P5. * “I hadn’t a ‘gaill” – I hadn’t a puff….
09 WP, 27.04.1940, p5.
10 Irish Press (hereafter IP). 30.5.1942, p1.
11 WP. 27.04.1940, p5.
12 WP. 03.08-1940, pP5.
13 National Archives Ireland (hereafter NIA) DFA 241.184 1940.
14 WP. 15.02. 1941.
15 16 17 18 WP. 17.8.1940, p5.
19 WP. 24.8.1940, p2.
20 21 22 WP. 31.8.1940, p5.
23 IP. 16.05.1952, p6.
24 IP. 23.08.1940, p1.
25 Irish Independent (hereafter Ind.). 23.08.1940, p5.
26 IP. 24.08.1940, p1.
27 Mayo News. 31.08.1940, p3.
28 Ind. 26.08.1940, p5.
29 Kennedy, Michael. Guarding Neutral Ireland, p110.
30 31 32 WP. 24.08.1940, p5.
34 Tinniswood, Adrian. A small act of remembrance, (See Comments).
35 WP. 17.08.1940, p5.
36 WP. 07.09.1940.
37 IP. 04.06.1940.
38 IP. 18.06.1942
39 WP. 19.10.1940, p5.
40 41 IP. 29.09.1940, p3.
42 WP. 07.09.1940.
43 44 McLoughlin, Michael. The Time Of The Canton: A Sea Story (pp. 59-60). Kindle Edition.
44 WP. 17.09.1940 p. 5.
45 McLoughlin, Michael. The Time Of The Canton: A Sea Story (pp. 85-86). Kindle Edition.
46 47 Woodman, Richard. The Real Cruel Sea: The Merchant Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic, 1939–1943 . Pen & Sword Books. Kindle Edition.
48 Christ Church, Oxford website. Flying Officer Archibald Nigel Charles Weir.
49 Dziadyk, William. S.S. Nerissa, the Final Crossing: The Amazing True Story of the Loss of a Canadian Troopship in the North Atlantic (p. 72). BD Pro Inc.. Kindle Edition.
50 D/T Davanger. Warsailors.com.
51 Kearney, Joe & Kelly, Ronan. Clouds in Harry’s Coffee. Doc on One, RTE Radio One. Hitler’s Irish slaves, Harry Callan.
53 Callan, Michèle. Forgotten Hero of Bunker Valentin (p. 121). Gill Books. Kindle Edition.
54 WP. 13.10.1945, p.2.
55 WP. 16.06.1945, p.3.
56 Woodman, Richard. The Real Cruel Sea: The Merchant Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic, 1939–1943 . Pen & Sword Books. Kindle Edition.
57 Dimbleby, Jonathan. The Battle of the Atlantic (p. 451). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition.
58 Mariner.ie. Ireland’s WWII Sea Losses. Captain Frank Forde.
59 NAI DFA 241.184a.
59b NAI DFA 241.184a.
59c NAI DFA 241.184a
60 NIA Jus. 90.94.16 1941-42.
61 NIA JUS 90/94/14 1940